**∴ Concept of MINUEND and SUBTRAHEND**

**→ 9`s Complement & 10`s complement**:

If the number is binary, then we use 1’s complement and 2’s complement. But in case, when the number is a decimal number, we will use the 9’s and 10’s complement.

**• 9`s Complement**:

The** 9’s complement** is used to find the subtraction of the decimal numbers.

**• **The 9’s complement of a number is calculated by subtracting each digit of the number by 9.

## • Subtraction using 9’s complement

• **Step 1:** Find 9`s complement of subtrahend

**• Step 2:** Add the 9`s complement with the minuend.

**Note**: If there is carry, add the carry to the result to get the final result, else find the 9`s complement of the reuslt and put negative sign to MSB.

**Case 1: When the subtrahend is smaller than the minuend.**

**Case 2: When the subtrahend is greater than the minuend.**

## ⁘ 10’s complement

The 10’s complement is also used to find the subtraction of the decimal numbers.

• The 10’s complement of a number is calculated by subtracting each digit by 9 and then adding 1 to the result. Simply, by adding 1 to its 9’s complement we can get its 10’s complement value.

## • Subtraction using 10’s complement

**• Step 1:** Find 10`s complement of subtrahend

• **Step 2:** Add 10`s complement with minuend

**Note**: if there is any carry discard it, else again find 10`s complement of result and put negative sign to MSB.

**Case 1: When the subtrahend is smaller than the minuend.**

**Case 2: When the subtrahend is greater than the minuend.**