Microprocessor and Computer Architecture

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Peripheral Devices

Here is the explanation of Peripheral Devices:

Peripheral devices are external hardware components connected to a computer system that expand its capabilities and provide input, output, or storage functions.

• These devices interact with the computer to send or receive data, allowing users to input information, receive output, or store data externally.

•These devices are designed to read information into or out of the memory unit upon command from the CPU and are considered to be the part of computer system.

For example: Keyboard and monitor and printers are common peripheral devices.

There are three types of peripherals:

types of peripherals

Input peripherals :

→Input peripherals are devices used to provide data or commands to a computer system. They allow users to input information or control the computer’s functions. Example: Keyboard, Mouse etc.

Output peripherals:

→Output peripherals are devices used to display or output information from a computer system to the user or to other devices. They provide feedback or results generated by the computer’s processing. Example: Printer, Monitor etc.

Input-Output peripherals:

→Input-Output (I/O) peripherals are devices capable of both receiving data from external sources and sending data from the computer system to external devices. They facilitate bidirectional communication between the computer and external devices or networks. Example: Touch screen etc.

ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) is a character encoding standard that represents text in computers and other devices that use text.

It defines numeric codes (0-127) for a set of 128 characters, including alphabetic characters (both uppercase and lowercase), digits, punctuation marks, and control characters.

Here is the detailed explanation of ASCII alphanumeric characters:

ASCII codes: 65 to 90
Characters: A, B, C, …, Y, Z

ASCII codes: 97 to 122
Characters: a, b, c, …, y, z

ASCII codes: 48 to 57
Characters: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

ASCII codes: 33 to 47
Characters: ! ” # $ % & ‘ ( ) * + , – . /

ASCII codes: 58 to 64
Characters: : ; < = > ? @

ASCII codes: 91 to 96
Characters: [ \ ] ^ _ `

ASCII codes: 123 to 126
Characters: { | } ~

ASCII code: 32
Character: (space)

ASCII codes: 0 to 31 and 127
Characters: These include control characters such as newline (LF), carriage return (CR), tab (HT), etc.

Screenshot 2024 04 01 175017
  • Screen: The display area where information is shown.
  • Resolution: The number of pixels that make up the display, affecting the clarity and sharpness of images.
  • Refresh Rate: The number of times per second the image on the screen is redrawn, measured in Hertz (Hz).
  • Connectors: Ports that allow the monitor to connect to the computer, commonly HDMI, DisplayPort, or VGA.
image 1
  • Alphanumeric Keys: The standard letter and number keys.
  • Function Keys: Special keys used for specific functions, often labeled as F1, F2, etc.
  • Modifier Keys: Keys like Shift, Ctrl, and Alt that modify the function of other keys.
  • Numeric Keypad: A set of keys resembling a calculator, commonly found on the right side of a standard keyboard.
  • Arrow Keys: Used for navigation in documents and interfaces.
image 2
  • Print Head: The component responsible for applying ink or toner onto the paper.
  • Paper Tray: The area where sheets of paper are loaded for printing.
  • Resolution: Similar to monitors, printer resolution determines the sharpness and detail of printed images.
  • Connectivity: Printers can connect to computers via USB, Ethernet, Wi-Fi, or other interfaces.

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