**Arithmetic microoperation **is such type of microoperation which performs arithmetic operation on numeric data stored in the registers.

## The basic arithmetic microoperations are:

## Adding:

• In **addition micro-operation,** the value in register R1 is added to the value in the register R2 and then the sum is transferred into register R3.

## Subtraction:

• In **subtraction micro-operation,** the contents of register R2 are subtracted from contents of the register R1, and then the result is transferred into R3.

• There is another way of doing the subtraction. In this, **2’s complement of R2 is added to R1**, which is equivalent to **R1 – R2**, and then the result is transferred into register R3.

## Increment:

• In **Increment micro-operation,** the value inside the R1 register is increased by 1

## Decrement:

• In **Decrement micro-operation, **the value inside the R1 register is decreased by 1.

## Table of Arithmetic microoperation:

## Binary Adder:

**A binary adder** is a digital circuit that performs addition of binary numbers.

• A full adder has three inputs (A, B, and a carry-in from the previous bit) and two outputs (sum and carry-out). It consists of two half adders and an OR gate. The carry-out from the first half adder is fed into the second half adder along with the carry-in.

```
A | B | Cin | Sum (S) | Cout
---------------------------------------
0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0
0 | 0 | 1 | 1 | 0
0 | 1 | 0 | 1 | 0
0 | 1 | 1 | 0 | 1
1 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 0
1 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 1
1 | 1 | 0 | 0 | 1
1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1
```

## 4- bit binary Adder:

## Binary Adder- Subtractor:

A **binary adder-subtractor** is a digital circuit that can perform addition and subtraction operations on binary numbers.

• It is typically implemented using logic gates such as AND, OR, XOR, and NOT gates. Here’s a brief overview of how it works:

## 4- bit Adder-Subtractor:

## Binary Incrementer:

A **binary incrementer **is a function or algorithm that takes a binary number as input and increments it by 1.

• In binary arithmetic, incrementing by 1 involves carrying over from one bit to another when necessary, similar to how you would increment a decimal number.

## Arithmetic circuit:

An **arithmetic circuit** is a digital circuit that performs arithmetic operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, Increment, decrement, shift on binary numbers.

• These circuits are fundamental components in digital systems ranging from simple calculators to complex microprocessors.